200 GALLON JUNGLE STYLE

Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers

pH: 6.71
ORP: 534.8 mV
NO3: 0.2 ppm
PO4: 0.41 pom
Fe: 0.38 ppm (@ 09:30)
K: 50 ppm
dGH: 3.25
Ca/Mg: 12.8/6.34 ppm
dKH: 7.11
 

Jesse13

New member
I don’t think it needs to be said that this is almost unfathomable to an average aquarist. It looks amazing and it’s extremely impressive the amount of knowledge a person has to have in regards to chemistry and botany to make something this intricate work. What do you do with your plant trimmings?
 

Paul G

Active member
All remainder that is really tatty and/or algae-ridden goes to the compost bin for the outdoor gardens. All remainder that is suitable for fresh starts goes to my local fish shop.

I have spent the last few days just feeling disappointed with the appearance of this tank, so I have begun again. All the Crypts have been moved and thinned out, and the entire foreground cleared. I am seeing more of my shy fish. The aquascape from midline forward will change. I am reducing the light significantly and returning the Anubias population, at least on a trial basis. Keeping it free of nuisance black dust algae which will infest it in less than perfect environmental conditions will be a real challenge.
 

Paul G

Active member
Today was filter change day, which always occasions a 'big gulp' water change. It has been three weeks to the day, on 06/29, when this was done last. While I had been set to do this every four weeks, the condition of the filter elements shows me that three weeks is not too soon. The first stage 100 micron filters were fairly dirty; not caked up but due for washout.

I have been puzzling over the reason for the appearance of significant surface oil, indicating a source of heavy organics that is eluding the ORP monitor, and has also escaped the AquaClear 110 intakes, not being dissolved organic matter in the strictest sense. However, I am seeing a general, if subtle, reduction in the clarity of the water column accompanying this, so I suspect these things are related. This phenomenon is something new, coinciding with one thing I have recently done that I can think of that might be at the root of it; I cannot speculate about it now.

Large charges of high performance GAC and also of SeaChem Renew were installed today, and the airstones laid on full time, in an effort to scrub this water. I am putting in the surface skimmers which will uptake the film but whose effectiveness at actually removing the oil will probably be pretty sketchy, there being no provision for installing interception medium except a small sponge block.

The water change performed today was about 10% of tank, not including the SWCR ODEs, which always go according to schedule. I have not done a round of tests for ten days. Having altered the water today, I will test after tomorrow's dosing cycle.
 

Paul G

Active member
The new aquascape nears completion. I have returned to a hardscape foreground using all my flat river rocks. The corys and loaches seem happier with this, and I am certainly more pleased with the less cluttered appearance. I have a little more planting to do before posting pics.

Beginning now, I will schedule SWCR ODEs every hour. This means an increase from 14 events to 24 events daily. The volume of the water change will remain the same, but I won't rule out possibly increasing it. I of course expect more frequent filter and membrane changes in the RO/DI system. The auto-dosing will require recalibration as well. This measure completely implements a full time continuous water change regimen.

I have been contemplating a change in the lighting. Both of the Build My LED (BML) strips were removed about ten days ago. The character and intensity of the light in the tank now differ substantially, as SUN2 and SUN3 have been deleted from the diurnal cycle. The O2 saturation has not been impacted at all, but the green algae are well suppressed. The shimmer is accentuated. The overall effect is pleasing. I will be replacing the magenta/white Stunner strips with additional Kessil A80 Tuna Suns. This will further simplify and fully modernize the lighting system.

Over a long time I have tried various powerhead arrangements designed to promote circulation through the swords and ferns and generally improve the water column uniformity, particularly with respect to the pH-L and pH-R differential. None ever proved satisfactory, because they didn't work as desired, were noisy, were unpleasant to look at, and/or were maintenance problems. More or less on impulse I installed a Red Sea ReefWave 25 gyre pump on the left end of the tank. WOW! I am installing another one on the right end tomorrow. There will be more to say about this gem.

The 20 lb CO2 cylinders are very heavy. I will keep a 20 pounder for CO2BACKUP, but I am changing to a 10 pound bottle for CO2PRIMARY. It will need to be changed more frequently, but it's so much easier to deal with.

As previously discussed, the use of chemical filtration media will be more rigorously regimented and liberally applied; bituminous GAC on a 2-3 week cycle and SeaChem Renew on a 4-5 week cycle. The big downside to this policy, given the size of this tank, is the cost. I am buying these media in bulk quantities. To help me stay on schedule I will make a point of noting regular filter changes here.

The "oil slick" has gradually disappeared. Perhaps I have been too liberal with the fresh frozen foods!
 

Paul G

Active member
Added to the 'scape are

Eriocaulon 'Vietnam'
Echinodorus parviflora
Echinodorus bleheri
Compacta

The last two are 'Tropica' forms which remain - for swordplants - small, suitable for mid-ground locations in large tanks. I banked and retained gravel into a mid-level terrace from end to end to accommodate these plants. Cryptocoryne wendtii were returned to this terrace as well. It will be awhile before these all grow in and fill out.


Today's numbers

pH: 6.7
ORP: 491 mV
NO3: 0.44 ppm
PO4: 0.08 ppm
Fe: 0.07 ppm (@ 09:55)
K: 40 ppm
dGH: 3.36
Ca/Mg: 16.0/4.9 ppm
dKH: 6.67
CO2: 40 ppm
DO: 8.21 ppm (7-day running average; 7-day min-max 5.4 - 10.3 ppm)
Temp, water column: 77.1 F
Temp, air at surface: 74.5 F night, 89.6 F day
TDS, habitat: 260 ppm
TDS, sourcewater 1 ppm; daily RO/DI demand is 81 liters (21.4 gallons)
Mid-day illumination power input: 156 watts

All pH meter probes calibrated Wednesday 8/17. Probe in Q/holding is very old and would not calibrate; replaced today.
All filters changed Thursday 8/11. Intakes, with re-screening repairs, changed Sunday 8/14.

LOOP1L velocity: 138 gph
100 micron mechanical 1st stage, 900 grams SeaChem Renew
25 micron mechanical 2nd stage, 500 mL SeaChem Purigen

LOOP1R velocity: 113 gph
100 micron mechanical 1st stage, 900 grams SeaChem Renew
25 micron mechanical 2nd stage, Hardness Reconstitution Reactor (500 grams SeaChem Reef Reactor, 300 grams Brightwell NeoMag)

LOOP2 velocity: 276 gph
100 micron mechanical, 400 grams bituminous GAC, 1st and 2nd stages

LOOP3 velocity: 308 gph
100 micron mechanical, 400 grams bituminous GAC, 1st and 2nd stages

530 g GAC, approximately 1 liter by volume, is a full-core charge.
900 g Renew, approximately 1 liter by volume, is a full-core charge.

SIDENOTE:
I was skeptical about the gyre pump, having no first-hand experience with it, thinking it might not be suitable for use with little fish. Steady current at second to lowest forward speed turned out to be ideal. With a gyre pump on each end, the upper currents waft subtly through the swords and ferns. The pumps at these locations and settings cause no unwanted turbulence and are not disturbing to the smallest tetras in the least. There is a certain invigorating quality imparted to the aquascape, there being benefits of gentle water movement for fish and plants. The pump has capabilities specifically designed for reef tanks which I will likely never use. Because of its breadth of features, the provided controller interface is needed, but this application is "set and forget". The physical presence of the pump is far more tolerable than any powerhead or recirculation pump I have tried; these pumps practically hide in plain sight.

 
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Paul G

Active member

This AM I trimmed the overspreading Water Wisteria, Hygrophila difformis. I must keep it from shading the swords. It develops roots at stem nodes, and has a tendency to produce tangles of white root threads all around old growth. A sign that it is thriving, this is nevertheless unsightly, and I try to excise it. Hygrophila makes a nice contrast with the big leafed swords and ferns and is an excellent background plant if trimmed right.

Today I am setting fertilizer tabs and injecting mycorrhiza and phytohormones in the new planting areas.

Today's numbers

pH: 6.66
ORP: 460.6 mV
K: 35 ppm
dGH: 3.1
Ca/Mg: 16/3.9 ppm
dKH: 6.22

The reported pH is the average of pH-L and pH-R running averages as of 8/17, when the first gyre pump was installed. Peak maximums have not exceeded 6.71, and L - R differential has not exceeded 0.02.

The Ca/Mg ratio is going askew just a bit. If the GH recon reactor maintains a minimum of 3 degrees I will not consider increasing the charge, but it may be necessary to bump supplementary MgSO4.

NO3, PO4, and Fe in the water column have been testing very low for some time now. I will do these tests less frequently, bearing in mind that substrate fertilization is in use.
 

Paul G

Active member

Tested water this AM; today's numbers are exactly the same as 24 hours ago (above post). I expect a slow decline in the background chemistry numbers resulting from increased water change volume as I have made no changes. I added 10 mL MgSO4 solution (approx 100 g/L) today, and will continue at this rate until a Ca/Mg ratio of 2/1 is achieved.

The present light system profiles are shown below, with only DAWN/DUSK and SUN1 in the schedule. These are the existing Kessil LEDs with increased drive to compensate for the removal of the BMLs and Stunners (SUN2, SUN3, and SUN4 deleted from schedule). The result in terms of photosynthetic oxygen evolution for the three days since the last adjustments were made is shown in the DO trace. As before, the O2 is hitting above 100% saturation daily. Friday morning's usual chemical oxygen demand spike occasioned air-pump turn-on, as the DO threshold for that remains 5.5 ppm. Since then the system has not once called for aeration. KH and pH being very favorable through this period, CO2 has been stable at about 45 ppm. In these conditions, in accord with common wisdom, one would not expect to see rapid onset of green periphyton, and I am delighted to confirm.

 

Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers
Fe: 0
K: 35 ppm
dGH: 3.14
Ca/Mg: 14.40/4.87 ppm
dKH: 6.16

Actions:
Increase the total daily K2CO3 dose from 35 mL to 45 mL.
Increase the total daily FLOURISH dose from 25 mL to 50 mL.
Setup auto-dose routine for MgSO4 solution starting at 5 mL daily.
Put magenta/white Stunner LED strips - SUN4 - back on line. These add just a little more brightness and warm color rendition. SUN4 timing is now 10:00 to 16:00.

The DADU and SUN1 lighting profiles shown in yesterday's post above are incorrect. For the record, the currently used profiles are shown here.
 

Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers

NO3: 0.88 ppm
PO4: 0.43 ppm
Fe: 0.09 ppm (@ 09:30)
K: 40 ppm
dGH: 2.91 (52 ppm CaCO3)
Ca: 14.40 ppm (36 ppm CaCO3)
Mg: 3.90 ppm (16 ppm CaCO3)
dKH: 6.39

First impression, early on, is that the new SWCR rate is over-running the GH recon reactor. Tomorrow all the GAC will be two weeks old. That will be a filter change day so I will also install an additional Reef Reactor/NeoMag charge in one of the high velocity loops.

The goal here is to keep a stable GH at 4 - 4.5 degrees (circa 76 ppm CaCO3), with a Ca++/Mg++ = 2:1. For purposes of targeting hardness test results using the LaMotte kit, this would be a hardness ratio of 43 ppm CaCO3 : 33 ppm MgCO3 (as CaCO3) for a 16 ppm : 8 ppm ionic content ratio.

There is nothing hard-and-fast about what is right or correct concerning these numbers. I think if the objective is to replicate a soft-water habitat, particularly for the benefit of the types of fish living therein, it is ideal to hold the general hardness at the specified minimum that still provides for the nutrient requirement of the plants. This then defines the optimal ionic content for the earth-alkali elements, establishing a criterion for making pure source water biologically friendly, consistent with the natural background chemistry of the habitat. To the extent that it is practical to do so, it is in keeping with the spirit of the thing to strive for this ideal. These numbers are factors in the implementation of a methodology; they are practical objectives only. So, with the LaMotte kit I use to ascertain these parameters, I am looking for GH at 76 ppm and CaCO3 at 43 ppm. I make no further representations as to the suitability of these values other than for the oligotrophic soft-water ecosystem I am creating.

As a practical matter, I will accept approximations. While the GH recon reactor has well demonstrated proof of concept, it is not a finely honed tool for yielding predictable ionic concentrations with precision. The concentration "build" depends on two factors: 1) the amount of the medium charge in the reactor, and 2) the prevailing velocity of current through the medium. These, of course, are coupled factors, as the rate of dissolution of the media is entirely a question of contact time. The appropriate, and easy, means of determining this in an aquarium subject to regular water changes using pure water at close intervals is to frequently test the acquired earth-alkali GH of the habitat, sampling the water column directly. Experimentation based on this will eventually indicate the optimal rate of flow through the reactor for a specified quantity of medium in the charge. I have experienced long spells wherein the GH and the SWCR have kept in balance using this reconstitution method. The better part of the recon is calcium. The medium could be aragonite, as in crushed shells/coral substrate, but I have been using SeaChem Reef Reactor as there is an implicit claim that magnesium and potassium (and strontium) are prominent in the analysis (it's on the label), though not exactly specified. It does not support the total magnesium concentration wanted by the aquatic gardener, but it perhaps hedges the amount of sulfate that must be used to redress the imbalance. So, the reactor sets the calcium, and the magnesium must be auto-dosed.

The experiment must be repeated if I change the reactor through-put velocity or the refresh rate of the SWCR. In any case, it is reasonable to expect that, once stable operating conditions settle in, concentration values will not be exact and also will possibly fluctuate. Close counts. A redux of "why a reactor" for dosing calcium:

1) All earth-alkalis contained in the reactor are carbonates, so when dissolved, CO3-- buffer is liberated. Thus the system KH is partially supported.

2) In a SWCR system full automation is of the essence. All methods must be auto-dosed or otherwise devised to balance with the refresh rate. To use auto-dosers, as in peristaltic pumps on timers, easy water solubility is absolutely necessary to prevent sedimentation in the dosing vats from clogging the apparatus. If the needed substance is difficultly soluble in water, as with CaSO4, CaCO3, or MgCO3, it must be placed for continuous contact, either by use in a reactor filter or just dropping it into the tank and letting time take over. The reactor offers a practical means of control with timely info feedback.

3) Ca++ and Mg++ can be auto-dosed as chloride, and Mg++ can be auto-dosed as sulfate because these are easily water soluble. However, to regularly dose Ca++ and Mg++ as needed using these compounds means regularly dosing Cl- and/or SO4-- which will concentrate in the water column disproportionately over time. Both are found in natural waters due to their geochemical ubiquity, but probably not in heavy concentrations in soft-water habitats as a rule. With me it's a matter of principle, once again, to avoid deviance from the ideal. For plants, Cl- is a trace element and sulfur is a secondary macro. It is not necessary, nor in my opinion desirable, to deliberately dose Cl- or SO4-- if the Ca++ and Mg++ can be had by other means. Any worthy comprehensive fertilizer, SeaChem Flourish for example, will have them in adequate amounts, and sulfur is also liberated in the breakdown of protein, an ongoing ineluctable process in environmental metabolism. As it happens, it is probably necessary to auto-dose MgSO4 solution in order to obtain the Ca:Mg ratio I seek, but that is the only source of sulfate in my system because I use K2CO3 to dose potassium.

4) As the reactor filter runs at a constant speed, ionic outputs from the reactor evolve continuously at a steady rate. The reactor affects remineralization (GH) and the buffer system (KH) as a regulator in a CO2 supplemented SWCR.

For those still reading this, thanks for watching.🙂
 
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Paul G

Active member
This AM filter loop intakes were changed. LOOP2 and LOOP3 filter changes were done about 09:00 to 11:00. All GAC in the system was two weeks old and was changed today.

LOOP1L and LOOP1R velocities: 136 gph and 113 gph respectively. No changes. Renew and Purigen due for changes two weeks from today.

LOOP2 velocity: 289 gph
100 micron mechanical 1st stage, 530 grams bituminous GAC
100 micron mechanical 2nd stage, 1500 grams Reef Reactor Hardness Reconstitution Reactor

LOOP3 velocity: 301 gph
100 micron mechanical, 530 grams bituminous GAC 1st and 2nd stages

A large charge, 1.5 kg, of Reef Reactor was installed in LOOP2. I anticipate acceleration in the hardening, so I will test GH frequently.

Today's numbers, time 13:00

dKH: 7.00
dGH: 3.14 (56 ppm CaCO3)
Ca: 16.00 ppm (40 ppm CaCO3)
Mg: 3.90 ppm (16 ppm CaCO3)
K: 40 ppm
 

Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers, time 08:50

dKH: 7.23
dGH: 3.36 (60 ppm CaCO3)
Ca: 17.60 ppm (44 ppm CaCO3)
Mg: 3.90 ppm (16 ppm CaCO3)
K: 40 ppm

Ca++ and CO3-- are increasing as expected. The buffer contributed by the recon reactor is in addition to that of the K2CO3 dose. KH will continue to rise in step with the GH. If the recon reactor contributes significant alkalinity and pH does not change, CO2 will also rise. Or, conversely, the K2CO3 regular dosing could be reduced to hold the KH at 7, with a consequent reduction in the potassium concentration. I am reducing the K2CO3 daily total dose from 45 mL to 30 mL while running this experiment.

So far there is no measurable increase in Mg++. I am not adding more MgSO4 for now, to see if there is any bump in Mg++ from the recon.

Time 18:10

dGH: 3.80 (68 ppm CaCO3)
 

Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers

pH: 6.66
ORP: 493 mV
NO3: 1.0 ppm
PO4: 0.38 ppm
Fe: 0.61 ppm (@ 07:50)
K: 40 ppm
dKH: 6.83

@ 08:00
dGH: 3.25 (58 ppm CaCO3)
Ca: 17.6 ppm (44 ppm CaCO3)
Mg: 3.41 ppm (14 ppm CaCO3)

@ 13:00
dGH: 4.15 (74 ppm CaCO3)
Mg: 7.32 ppm (30 ppm CaCO3)

The 1.5 kg Reef Reactor in LOOP2 started raising the calcium almost immediately with the consequent incline in GH, with no change in magnesium. I removed this reactor Friday night, and the KH and GH have declined somewhat. The Ca++ is staying on target at 17.6 ppm. After this AM testing, 400 mL MgSO4 solution (100 g/L) was required to raise Mg++ to 7.32 ppm.

The original reactor in LOOP1R containing 500 g Reef Reactor and 300 g NeoMag will get the 1500 g charge. This filter loop runs at about 1/3 the velocity of LOOP2. There's more experimenting yet to do. Magnesium is not developed measurably using Reef Reactor in this application. As far as I can tell, it is neither better nor worse than crushed shells/coral substrate for the general purpose of hardening water, but there's no certainty that an appreciable portion of the GH will be from Mg in any case. If the requirement is for a specified Mg++ concentration, it will be necessary to auto-dose MgSO4 and count on the recon reactor to provide Ca++.

Water column iron has been vanishingly small, but time of day is a factor. Today I got a comparatively large number, having tested within 30 minutes of the AM dose. SeaChem states that ferrous gluconate will be taken up rapidly by the plants and should be tested in this time frame. You'll get a number that indicates how much Fe++ you've provided for foliar uptake in that dose. After the plants have eaten it there is no available iron in the water column until the next dose; it does not persist in the same way as K+, etc. I dose Flourish 30 mL between 07:00 and 07:30, 10 mL at 12:00, and 10 mL at 17:00. The iron test is needed for calibrating dose rate. But after that it seems that testing for iron on a schedule either confirms what I know already if I test as soon as it is dosed, or provides information that has no relevance if I test at any other time!
 
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Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers

pH: 6.66
ORP: 540.1 mV
NO3: 0.89 ppm
PO4: 0.78 ppm
K: 40 ppm
dKH: 6.05
dGH: 3.58
Ca: 16.8 ppm
Mg: 5.37 ppm

The last eight days has seen the Ca++ content remain fairly stable with 1.5 kg of Reef Reactor in the Hardness Reconstitution Reactor (hereafter HRR) in LOOP1R running at 107 gph. The dose rate of MgSO4 solution for this period was 10 mL/day. The drop in Mg++ was over 2 ppm. I added 100 mL directly today, and the dose rate is now raised to 15 mL/day. How fast will this bring Mg++ to 8 ppm? The SWCR/HCR balance can once again be adjusted for Ca++ maintenance. Calibrating the Mg++ dose is now straightforward; I will accept the resulting SO4-- build.

The alkalinity is holding at a sensible 6 dKH. The HCR is contributing part of the CO3-- with the K2CO3 dosing handling the rest. The current dose rate is maintaining K+ close to a constant 40 ppm and CO2 well above 30 ppm.

I have been feeding the fish dry flake and sinking formulae sparingly. Generous portions of fresh frozen are off the table for now.
 
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Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers

pH: 6.65
ORP: 539.8 mV
NO3: < 0.2 ppm
PO4: 0.48 ppm
K: 40 ppm
dKH: 5.94
dGH: 3.70
Ca: 16.8 ppm
Mg: 5.85 ppm

Going in the right direction. Today is filter change day.

LOOP1L Velocity 141 gph
Stage1: 100 micron mechanical, no core media
Stage 2: 25 micron mechanical, 1 kg SeaChem Renew core charge

LOOP1R Velocity 110 gph
Stage 1: 100 micron mechanical, 800 g SeaChem Renew and 250 mL SeaChem Purigen core charge
Stage 2: 25 micron mechanical, 1.5 kg SeaChem Reef Reactor core charge (HCR)

LOOP2
Stages 1 and 2: 100 micron mechanical, no core media

LOOP3
Stages 1 and 2: 100 micron mechanical, no core media

No activated carbon is being used in this maintenance cycle.

All the porous bio-media has now been rinsed thoroughly. From time to time, I remove the mesh bags from the canisters and "dunk-and-swish" them in aquarium water drained in the filter change. This results in washout of considerable mulm, so it's pretty clear it needs doing. This is about 6 gallons of porous bio-media kept in Stage 3 in both LOOP1L and LOOP1R. I am careful to preserve the cultures by avoiding contact with chlorinated water. However, fast-running water from the tap and a colander works very well, but this must be done in batches, allowing time for cultures to regenerate. In the last filter change, and this one, I un-bagged a portion of the medium and gave it a good scrubbing. Fish have been fed sparingly to minimize nitrogenous waste. I have about 12 gallons of 1" bio-balls in follow-on filters, so I doubt there is any real impairment of the total bio-filter, even though the porous media are more efficient. With porous bio-media this method far exceeds dunk-and-swish in the bag in terms of the mulm it gives up. It really must be done more frequently. The porous bio-media now consist of Sera Siporax and SeaChem Matrix. I have replaced all of the Marinepure medium with Matrix. Marinepure seems comparatively soft and yields a good deal of white cloudiness and sandy clastics when rinsed, even with mild agitation.
 

Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers

NO3: 0
PO4: 0.24 ppm
dKH: 6.11
dGH: 4.23
Ca: 19.20 ppm
Mg: 6.83 ppm

The HRR appears to be overrunning the SWCR only slightly. This PM I did a 10% "big gulp" water change; interested to see results tomorrow. As PO4 is inclining (although NO3 is not), this extra water change will certainly be okay. In any case, as long as the source water is pristine, there is no alternative superior to a water change for water quality.

Without going into great detail unnecessarily, I will simply state that the thorough washing of the porous bio-filter media described in the previous entry above has made a salutary improvement. This really needed doing.
 
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Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers

NO3: 0
PO4: 0.21 ppm
K: 25 ppm
dKH: 5.66
dGH: 3.81
Ca: 17.6 ppm
Mg: 5.85 ppm

After the water change, these numbers look good to me. At pH = 6.66, CO2 is circa 40 ppm for KH at 5.66 degrees. This puts K+ lower but still more than adequate. Ca++ and Mg++ are perfectly okay here, with a 3:1 ratio and GH at 3.5 - 4 degrees.

If the ODE time is changed from 90 seconds, which drains 3.375 liters, to 120 seconds, the volume increases to 4.5 liters. This measure further improves DOM removal by the SWCR and is readily amenable to adjustment. This makes it preferable to experimenting with HRR charge weight or LOOP1R throughput flow rate. The total daily demand on the RO/DI system would increase by 33%, from 81 liters to 108 liters (29 gpd). My current production capacity is 75 gpd. I will need to reduce the chloramine removal filter change interval appropriately.
 

Paul G

Active member
Today's numbers

NO3: 0
PO4: 0.24 ppm
K: 40 ppm
dKH: 5.66
dGH: 3.59
Ca: 16.8 ppm
Mg: 5.37 ppm

SWCR is presently running with ODE = 4.5 L (120 seconds) as discussed above. The surprise here is the rapid rebound in K+, as I have not yet attempted an adjustment in the K2CO3 dose rate. Already, the GH appears to be declining. If numbers go lower, I will try ODE = 4 L (107 seconds).

First step into the lighting revisions is addition of three Kessil A80 Tuna Suns in the front row. This doesn't seem to increase the overall brightness so much as it improves the spread, or fill-in.

 
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